epinephrine

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epinephrine

 [ep″ĭ-nef´rin]
a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla; called also adrenaline (British). Its function is to aid in the regulation of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. At times when a person is highly stimulated, as by fear, anger, or some challenging situation, extra amounts of epinephrine are released into the bloodstream, preparing the body for energetic action. Epinephrine is a powerful vasopressor that increases blood pressure and increases the heart rate and cardiac output. It also increases glycogenolysis and the release of glucose from the liver, so that a person has a suddenly increased feeling of muscular strength and aggressiveness.ƒ

Some disorders of the adrenal glands, such as addison's disease, reduce the output of epinephrine below normal. By contrast, excessive activity of those glands, as sometimes seen in highly emotional persons, tends to produce tenseness, palpitation, high blood pressure, perhaps diarrhea, and overaggressiveness. Certain adrenal tumors also result in the production of too much epinephrine. Removal of the tumor relieves symptoms.

Epinephrine is also produced synthetically and can be administered parenterally, topically, or by inhalation. It acts as a vasoconstrictor, antispasmodic, and sympathomimetic, and it is used as an emergency heart stimulant as well as to relieve symptoms in allergic conditions such as urticaria (hives), asthma, and other conditions requiring bronchodilation and as a adjunct to local and regional anesthesia. It is the most effective drug for counteracting the lethal effects of anaphylactic shock. It is also used topically in the eye in the treatment of glaucoma.

ep·i·neph·rine

(ep'i-nef'rin),
A catecholamine that is the chief neurohormone of the adrenal medulla of most species; also secreted by certain neurons. The l-isomer is the most potent stimulant (sympathomimetic) of adrenergic α- and β-receptors, resulting in increased heart rate and force of contraction, vasoconstriction or vasodilation, relaxation of bronchiolar and intestinal smooth muscle, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, and other metabolic effects; used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, acute allergic disorders, open-angle glaucoma, cardiac arrest, and heart block, and as a topical and local vasoconstrictor. Generally used salts are epinephrine hydrochloride and epinephrine bitartrate, the latter most frequently used in topical preparations.
See also: emergency theory, fight or flight response.
Synonym(s): adrenaline
[epi- + G. nephros, kidney, + -ine]

epinephrine

/epi·neph·rine/ (-nef´rin) a catecholamine hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla and a central nervous system neurotransmitter released by some neurons. It is stored in chromaffin granules and is released in response to hypoglycemia, stress, and other factors. It is a potent stimulator of the sympathetic nervous system (adrenergic receptors), and a powerful vasopressor, increasing blood pressure, stimulating the heart muscle, accelerating the heart rate, and increasing cardiac output. It is used as a topical vasoconstrictor, cardiac stimulant, systemic antiallergic, bronchodilator, and topical antiglaucoma agent; for the last two uses it is also administered as the bitartrate salt. Called also adrenaline (Great Britain).

epinephrine

also

epinephrin

(ĕp′ə-nĕf′rĭn)
n.
1. A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress, as from fear or injury. It initiates many bodily responses, including the stimulation of heart action and an increase in blood pressure, metabolic rate, and blood glucose concentration. Also called adrenaline.
2. A white to brownish crystalline compound, C9H13NO3, isolated from the adrenal glands of certain mammals or synthesized and used in medicine as a heart stimulant, vasoconstrictor, and bronchial relaxant.

epINEPHrine

[ep′ənef′rin]
Etymology: Gk, epi + nephros, kidney
an endogenous adrenal hormone and synthetic adrenergic agent. It acts as an agonist at alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, and beta-2 receptors. Also called adrenaline.
indications It is prescribed to treat anaphylaxis, acute bronchial spasm, and nasal congestion and to increase the effectiveness of a local anesthetic.
contraindication Known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
adverse effects Among the most serious adverse effects are arrhythmias, increases in blood pressure, rebound congestion (when it is used as a decongestant), tachycardia, and nervousness.

adrenaline

A sympathomimetic catecholamine hormone synthesised in the adrenal medulla and released into the circulation in response to hypoglycemia and sympathetic nervous system—i.e., splanchnic nerve stimulation due to exercise and stress; it acts on α- and β-receptors, resulting in vasoconstriction or vasodilation, decreased peripheral blood flow, increased heart rate, increased force of contractility, increased glycogenolysis and increased lipolysis. Pharmacologic doses of epinephrine are used as bronchodilator for acute asthma, to increase blood pressure and in acute myocardial infarctions, to improve myocardial and cerebral blood flow. Adrenaline is the official British pharmacopoeia name for epinephrine.

epinephrine

Physiology A sympathomimetic catecholamine hormone synthesized in the adrenal medulla and released into the circulation in response to hypoglycemia and sympathetic nervous system–splanchnic nerve stimulation due to exercise and stress; it acts on α– and β-receptors, resulting in vasoconstriction or vasodilation, ↓ peripheral blood flow, ↑ heart rate, ↑ force of contractility, ↑ glycogenolysis, ↑ lipolysis; pharmacologic epinephrine is used as bronchodilator for acute asthma to ↑ BP and in acute MIs to improve myocardial and cerebral blood flow. See Fight-or-flight response, High-dose epinephrine.

ep·i·neph·rine

(ep'i-nef'rin)
A catecholamine that is the chief neurohormone of the medulla of the suprarenal gland. The l-isomer is the most potent stimulant (sympathomimetic) of adrenergic α- and β-receptors, resulting in increased heart rate and force of contraction, vasoconstriction or vasodilation, relaxation of bronchiolar and intestinal smooth muscle, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, and other metabolic effects; used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, acute allergic disorders, open-angle glaucoma, and heart block, and as a topical and local vasoconstrictor.
Synonym(s): adrenaline.
[epi- + G. nephros, kidney, + -ine]

epinephrine

ADRENALINE. Epinephrine is the favoured medical usage in the USA, but the term ‘adrenaline’ is in popular use. The drug is on the WHO official list. The terms ad and renal are Latin for ‘on’ and ‘kidney’. The corresponding terms in Greek are epi and nephron .

epinephrine

see ADRENALINE.

Epinephrine

Also called adrenalin, a secretion of the adrenal glands (along with norepinephrine) that helps the liver release glucose and limits the release of insulin. Norepinephrine is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter, a substance that transmits nerve signals.

epinephrine

adrenaline; catecholamine neurohormone, released from adrenal medulla as part of the 'fight or flight' mechanism, i.e. the unconscious and automatic response to real or perceived danger (Table 1); most potent stimulant (sympathomimetic) of adrenergic alpha and beta receptors (see Table 2); added to local anaesthetic (LA) solutions (e.g. lidocaine or bupivacaine, at 1:200 000, equivalent to 5 μg/mL of LA) as a vasoconstrictor, so that anaesthetic is absorbed more slowly into systemic circulation, anaesthetic effect is prolonged and a smaller dose of the drug can be administered (note: LA solutions containing epinephrine must never be injected into a digit; they should be avoided in pregnant women as epinephrine can cross the placenta to affect the fetus); drug of choice in immediate treatment of anaphylaxis, delivered by intramuscular injection at rate of 500 μg (0.5 mL of a 1:1000 solution) every 5 minutes to a maximum of three doses for a 70-kg adult
Table 1: The systemic effects of adrenaline (epinephrine)
Site of actionEffects
Cardiac effectsRapid increase in heart rate
Increase in the force of contraction of the heart muscle
Blood vesselsVasoconstriction of blood vessels in skin
Vasodilatation or vasoconstriction of local blood vessels, depending on whether they carry alpha or beta receptors
Smooth muscleRelaxation of smooth muscle
Bronchodilatation
Relaxation of gut muscle
Hepatic effectsGlycogenolysis (causing an increase in circulating glucose)
Lipolysis

It is recommended that the use of adrenaline should be avoided in pregnant women as it can cross the placenta to cause systemic effects in the fetus.

Table 2: Effects of stimulation of alpha, beta and dopamine receptors
ReceptorActionStimulating drug
Alpha-1 (α1); postsynapticVasoconstriction; positive inotropism; antidiuresisAdrenaline +
Noradrenaline +++
Alpha-2 (α2); presynapticVasodilatation; inhibition of noradrenaline releaseAdrenaline +
Noradrenaline +++
Dopamine +
Alpha-2 (α2); postsynapticConstriction of coronary arteries; promotion of salt and water excretionAdrenaline +
Noradrenaline +++
Dopamine +
Beta-1 (β1); postsynapticPositive inotropism; chronotropism; renin releaseAdrenaline ++
Noradrenaline ++
Isoprenaline ++
Dopamine +
Beta-2 (β2); presynapticNoradrenaline release accelerated; positive inotropism; chronotropismAdrenaline +
Isoprenaline +++
Beta-2 (β2); postsynapticVasodilatation; relaxation of bronchial smooth muscleAdrenaline +
Isoprenaline +++
Dopamine1; postsynapticVasodilatation; diuresisDopamine ++
Dopamine1; presynapticInhibits noradrenaline releaseDopamine +

Plus signs indicate degree of effect.

epinephrine (eh·pi·neˑ·frin),

n neurochemical produced by the adrenal glands that arouses the sympathetic response. Also called
adrenaline.

adrenaline (epinephrine) 

A hormone of the adrenal medulla which, instilled in the eye, causes a constriction of the conjunctival vessels, dilates the pupil and diminishes the intraocular pressure. See adrenergic receptors; ocular decongestant; naphazoline; neurotransmitter; noradrenaline (norepinephrine).

ep·i·neph·rine

(ep'i-nef'rin)
A catecholamine that is the chief neurohormone of the adrenal medulla of most species; also secreted by some neurons; used to treat bronchial asthma, acute allergic disorders, open-angle glaucoma, cardiac arrest, and heart block, and as a topical and local vasoconstrictor.
Synonym(s): adrenaline.
[epi- + G. nephros, kidney, + -ine]

epinephrine (ep´inef´rin),

n a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis, causing an elevation in the blood sugar, vasodilation of blood vessels of the skeletal muscles, vasoconstriction of the arterioles of the skin and mucous membranes, relaxation of bronchiolar smooth muscles, and stimulation of heart action. Used in local anesthetics for its vasoconstrictive action to prolong the anesthesia action, provide hemostasis, and reduce systemic complications.
epinephrine/epinephrine bitartrate/epinephrine HCl,
n brand names: EpiPen Jr., Bronkaid Mist, Primatene Mist;
drug class: adrenergic agonist, catecholamine;
action: β1- and β2-agonist, causing increased levels of cAMP, producing bronchodilation and cardiac stimulation;
uses: acute asthmatic attacks, hemostasis, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis, allergic reactions, cardiac arrest, vasopressor. Recommended for the dental office or clinic emergency kit. See EpiPen.

epinephrine

a hormone produced by the medulla of the adrenal glands; called also adrenaline. Its function is to aid in the regulation of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. At times when an animal is highly stimulated, as by fear, anger or some challenging situation, extra amounts of epinephrine are released into the bloodstream, preparing the body for energetic action. Epinephrine is a powerful vasopressor which increases blood pressure and increases the heart rate and cardiac output. It also increases glycogenolysis and the release of glucose from the liver.