Adrenal glands


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Related to Adrenal glands: Addison's disease, pituitary gland, Adrenal Gland Cancer, Adrenal fatigue, Thyroid glands

adrenal glands

The small internally secreting (ENDOCRINE) organs which sit like triangular caps one on top of each KIDNEY (hence the name). Each adrenal has two distinct parts, the inner core, which produces ADRENALINE, and an outer layer (the cortex) which produces various steroid hormones. Formerly known as suprarenal glands, which, of course, means the same thing.

Adrenal glands

The two glands that are located on top of the kidneys. These glands secrete several hormones, including the glucocorticoids which, among other things, influence the way the immune system works, and the mineralocorticoids, which affect retention of water and sodium.

adrenal glands

endocrine glands sited above each kidney. The outermost region, the adrenal cortex, secretes steroid hormones: the glucocorticoids (principally cortisol), mineralocorticoids (principally aldosterone) and androgens in both male and female. The inner adrenal medulla secretes the catecholamines, mainly adrenaline and noradrenaline, under the control of the sympathetic nervous system. See also adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), hormones, steroids; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract
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Your adrenal glands secrete both, but when you're under stress, they produce more Cortisol and less DHEA.
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the brain, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands.
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According to many reports (1), holy basil acts by lowering cortisol production in the adrenal glands and as such, helps reduce fat around the lower abdomen.
It was also just a few months after Gaskins was told she had one year to live after being diagnosed with adrenal cortical carcinoma - a rare cancer that starts in adrenal glands, just above the kidneys - and shortly after she underwent surgery to remove a 10-pound tumor and her right kidney.
The adrenal glands are the body's center for action in response to stimuli such as fear, anger, surprise, excitement, emotional trauma, infections, physical pain, and even stressful muscle exertion and fasting.
Vitamin B5 is vital in the production of the stress-regulation hormones in the adrenal glands and is often called the anti-stress vitamin," said Adrian.

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