Adjuvant therapy


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Related to Adjuvant therapy: Adjuvant chemotherapy

adjuvant therapy

the treatment of a disease with substances that enhance the action of drugs, especially drugs that promote the production of antibodies.

adjuvant therapy

Medspeak
Any therapy that increases a primary treatment’s efficacy; auxiliary therapy.
 
Oncology
A treatment­ used after failure of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormones as a primary treatment of a tumour to prevent metastases, or for residual malignancy after excision; AT is used after one or more of the conventional therapeutic arms has failed.

Adjuvant therapies
Breast cancer
Various combinations of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, docetaxel, 5-FU, MTX, paclitaxel and others have been used with some reduction in metastases.

Colorectal cancer
Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer has not been highly successful; 5-FU might reduce micrometastases.
 
Melanoma
While interferon alpha 2b is FDA-approved, and various chemotherapeutics have been used against advanced melanoma, responses have been minimal and short-lived.
 
Adjuvant therapy for breast cancer
Recommended after breast-conserving surgery
• If Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) is > 3.0, ER +ve; possible chemotherapy if NPI > 4.4;
• ER -ve, recommend chemotherapy.

Not recommended if Nottingham prognostic index is < 3.0
ER+ hormonal therapy; ER- no hormonal therapy, but if NPI > 5.4 chemotherapy for > age 50, or > 4.4 if < age 50.

Adjuvant Therapy

Therapy that enhances a primary therapy; the addition of one or more therapeutic modalities to a primary or initial management strategy to improve survival, usually in the context of cancer care. For example, the first-line treatment for melanoma, colorectal and breast cancer is surgical, assuming that they are in early stages (ideally under stage 3), with radiotherapy and various forms of local or systemic therapy (chemotherapy, regional hyperthermia with chemotherapy, hormonal manipulation, immunotherapy—BCG, IL-2-stimulated lymphokine-activated killer cells, IFN-alpha and biological response modifiers) serving as adjuvants.
Adjuvant therapy is also defined as a treatment which is used:
• After failure of the primary therapeutic modality (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy hormones);
• Instead of the primary modality, based on unique tumour characteristics or patient preferences;
• To prevent metastases; or
• For residual malignancy after excision.
Fives “rules” of adjuvant therapy were published in the JAMA in 1990 (264:1444), and are still relevant:
(1) There may be occult, viable tumour cells in circulation—intravascular, intralymphatic, or intraperitoneal and/or established, microscopic foci of tumour cells locally, at distant sites, or both.
(2) Therapy is most effective when tumour burden is minimal and cell kinetics are optimal.
(3) Agents with proven effectiveness against the tumour must be used. 
(4) Cytotoxic therapy shows a dose-response relationship and therefore must be administered in maximally tolerated doses, and duration of therapy must be sufficient to eradicate all tumour cells.
(5) The risk-to-benefit ratio for therapy must be favourable for individuals who may remain asymptomatic for their natural life expectancy after tumour resection.
Examples, Adjuvant therapies
Breast cancer Various combinations of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, docetaxel, 5-FU, MTX, paclitaxel and other have been used with some reduction in metastases.
Colorectal cancer Aduvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer has not been hugely successful; 5-FU might reduce micrometastases.
Melanoma While interferon alpha 2b is FDA-approved and various chemotherapeutics have been used for advanced melanoma, responses have been minimal and short-lived.

adjuvant therapy

Any therapy that ↑ a primary treatment's efficacy Oncology A treatment–eg, chemotherapy, RT, or hormone therapy, used after a primary treatment of a tumor, to prevent metastases, or for residual malignancy after excision; AT is used after one or more of the conventional therapeutic arms–surgery, chemotherapy, RT, has failed. See IL-2/LAK cells. Cf Adjuvant chemotherapy Therapeutics Therapy that enhances an primary therapy; auxiliary therapy.

Adjuvant therapy

A treatment done when there is no evidence of residual cancer in order to aid the primary treatment. Adjuvant treatments for endometrial cancer are radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy.
References in periodicals archive ?
As receipt of neoadjuvant therapy may impact decisions regarding adjuvant therapy, we excluded patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy (n = 62) (Giordano et al.
Indeed, the most up-to-date Cochrane Review of adjuvant therapies for HCC (conducted prior to this thalidomide study) found insufficient evidence to show that previously investigated adjuvant therapies increased survival for HCC, and only limited evidence to suggest that adjuvant therapy was useful in disease-free survival.
What is the impact of racial, economic, and insurance-status disparities in the use of adjuvant therapy and mammography on breast cancer mortality?
After their surgery, women in the study received adjuvant therapy such as radiation, chemotherapy, or hormonal treatment with the drug tamoxifen.
The TreatmentTrends Melanoma (US) and TreatmentTrends Melanoma (EU) reports confirm there is higher use of adjuvant therapy which is often used to treat early stage melanoma in the U.
The study, a randomized non-blinded phase 2 trial, compared 5-fluorouracil hepatic arterial infusion as post-operative adjuvant therapy with and without Antineoplastons A10/AS2-1 Injections for colorectal metastasis of the liver.
Twenty-four postmenopausal breast cancer patients on adjuvant therapy who were not using vaginal estrogens served as controls.
Chapter topics on evaluation and adjuvant therapy include neurologic presentation; radiographic, electrodiagnostic and metastatic evaluation; chemotherapy, external beam radiotherapy, and stereostatic radiosurgery.
The agent received an additional approval in late 2006 as an adjuvant therapy, as part of a regimen containing doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel for HER2-positive, node-positive breast cancer.
International Panel of Breast Cancer Specialists Agree: 'With Successful Adjuvant Therapy, Early Breast Cancer is Potentially a Curable Condition.