flaccid paralysis

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paralysis

 [pah-ral´ĭ-sis] (pl. paral´yses.)
Loss or impairment of motor function in a part due to a lesion of the neural or muscular mechanism; also, by analogy, impairment of sensory function (sensory paralysis). Paralysis is a symptom of a wide variety of physical and emotional disorders rather than a disease in itself. Called also palsy.
Types of Paralysis. Paralysis results from damage to parts of the nervous system. The kind of paralysis resulting, and the degree, depend on whether the damage is to the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system.

If the central nervous system is damaged, paralysis frequently affects the movement of a limb as a whole, not the individual muscles. The more common forms of central paralysis are hemiplegia (in which one entire side of the body is affected, including the face, arm, and leg) and paraplegia (in which both legs and sometimes the trunk are affected). In central paralysis the tone of the muscles is increased, causing spasticity.

If the peripheral nervous system is damaged, individual muscles or groups of muscles in a particular part of the body, rather than a whole limb, are more likely to be affected. The muscles are flaccid, and there is often impairment of sensation.
Causes of Central Paralysis. stroke syndrome is one of the most common causes of central paralysis. Although there is usually some permanent disability, much can be done to rehabilitate the patient. Paralysis produced by damage to the spinal cord can be the result of direct injuries, tumors, and infectious diseases. Paralysis in children may be a result of failure of the brain to develop properly in intrauterine life or of injuries to the brain, as in the case of cerebral palsy. Congenital syphilis may also leave a child partially paralyzed. Paralysis resulting from hysteria has no organic basis and is a result of emotional disturbance or mental illness.
Causes of Peripheral Paralysis. Until the recent development of immunizing vaccines, the most frequent cause of peripheral paralysis in children was poliomyelitis. neuritis, inflammation of a nerve, can also produce paralysis. Causes can be physical, as with cold or injury; chemical, as in lead poisoning; or disease states, such as diabetes mellitus or infection. Paralysis caused by neuritis frequently disappears when the disorder causing it is corrected.
paralysis of accommodation paralysis of the ciliary muscles of the eye so as to prevent accommodation.
paralysis a´gitans Parkinson's disease.
ascending paralysis spinal paralysis that progresses upward.
birth paralysis that due to injury received at birth.
brachial paralysis paralysis of an upper limb from damage to the brachial plexus.
bulbar paralysis that due to changes in motor centers of the medulla oblongata; the chronic form is marked by progressive paralysis and atrophy of the lips, tongue, pharynx, and larynx, and is due to degeneration of the nerve nuclei of the floor of the fourth ventricle.
central paralysis any paralysis due to a lesion of the brain or spinal cord.
cerebral paralysis paralysis caused by an intracranial lesion; see also cerebral palsy.
compression paralysis that caused by pressure on a nerve.
conjugate paralysis loss of ability to perform some parallel ocular movements.
crossed paralysis paralysis affecting one side of the face and the other side of the body.
crutch paralysis brachial paralysis caused by pressure from a crutch.
decubitus paralysis paralysis due to pressure on a nerve from lying for a long time in one position.
divers' paralysis decompression sickness.
Erb-Duchenne paralysis paralysis of the upper roots of the brachial plexus due to destruction of the fifth and sixth cervical roots, without involvement of the small muscles of the hand. Called also Erb's palsy.
facial paralysis weakening or paralysis of the facial nerve, as in bell's palsy.
familial periodic paralysis a hereditary disease with recurring attacks of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis, associated with a fall in (hypokalemic type), a rise in (hyperkalemic type), or normal (normokalemic type) serum potassium levels; all three types are inherited as autosomal dominant traits.
flaccid paralysis paralysis with loss of muscle tone of the paralyzed part and absence of tendon reflexes.
immunologic paralysis former name for immunologic tolerance.
infantile paralysis the major form of poliomyelitis.
infantile cerebral ataxic paralysis a congenital condition due to defective development of the frontal regions of the brain, affecting all extremities.
ischemic paralysis local paralysis due to stoppage of circulation.
Klumpke's paralysis (Klumpke-Dejerine paralysis) atrophic paralysis of the lower arm and hand, due to lesion of the eighth cervical and first dorsal thoracic nerves.
Landry's paralysis Guillain-Barré syndrome.
lead paralysis severe peripheral neuritis with wristdrop, due to lead poisoning.
mixed paralysis combined motor and sensory paralysis.
motor paralysis paralysis of the voluntary muscles.
musculospiral paralysis Saturday night paralysis.
obstetric paralysis birth paralysis.
periodic paralysis
1. any of various diseases characterized by episodic flaccid paralysis or muscular weakness.
progressive bulbar paralysis the chronic form of bulbar paralysis; called also Duchenne's disease or paralysis.
pseudobulbar muscular paralysis pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy.
pseudohypertrophic muscular paralysis pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy.
radial paralysis Saturday night paralysis.
Saturday night paralysis paralysis of the extensor muscles of the wrist and fingers, so called because of its frequent occurrence in alcoholics. It is most often due to prolonged compression of the radial (musculospiral) nerve, and, depending upon the site of nerve injury, is sometimes accompanied by weakness and extension of the elbow. Called also musculospiral or radial paralysis.
sensory paralysis loss of sensation resulting from a morbid process.
sleep paralysis paralysis occurring at awakening or sleep onset; it represents extension of the atonia of REM sleep into the waking state and is often seen in those suffering from narcolepsy or sleep apnea. Called also waking paralysis.
spastic paralysis paralysis with rigidity of the muscles and heightened deep muscle reflexes and tendon reflexes.
spastic spinal paralysis lateral sclerosis.
tick paralysis progressive ascending flaccid motor paralysis following the bite of certain ticks, usually Dermacentor andersoni; first seen in children and domestic animals in the northern Pacific region of North America, and now seen in other parts of the world.
Volkmann's paralysis ischemic paralysis.
waking paralysis sleep paralysis.

flac·cid pa·ral·y·sis

paralysis with a loss of muscle tone. Compare: spastic diplegia.

flaccid paralysis

an abnormal condition characterized by the weakening or the loss of muscle tone. It may be caused by disease or by trauma affecting the nerves associated with the involved muscles. Compare spastic paralysis.

flaccid paralysis

Neurology Paralysis characterized by complete loss of muscle tone and tendon reflexes. Cf Spastic paralysis.

Flaccid paralysis

Paralysis characterized by limp, unresponsive muscles.
Mentioned in: Botulism

paralysis

loss or impairment of motor function in a part due to a lesion of the neural or muscular mechanism; also, by analogy, impairment of sensory function (sensory paralysis). Called also palsy. Motor paralysis may be expressed as flaccid, in the case of lower motor neuron lesion, or spastic, in the case of an upper motor neuron lesion. See also paraplegia, quadriplegia, hemiplegia and paralyses of individual cranial and peripheral nerves.

paralysis of accommodation
paralysis of the ciliary muscles of the eye so as to prevent accommodation.
anal paralysis
manifested by flaccidity and lack of tone of the anal sphincter, and loss of house training restraint in companion animals.
antepartum paralysis
pressure on sciatic nerves by a large fetus in late pregnancy in a cow can cause posterior paralysis that is cured by a cesarean section.
ascending paralysis
spinal paralysis that progresses forwards involving first the hindlimbs then the forelimbs, then the intercostal muscles, then the diaphragm, and finally the muscles of the neck.
birth paralysis
that due to injury received by the neonate at birth.
bladder paralysis
manifested by fullness of the bladder and response to manual pressure. See also motor paralytic urinary bladder.
cage paralysis
see thiamin nutritional deficiency.
central paralysis
any paralysis due to a lesion of the brain or spinal cord.
cerebral paralysis
paralysis caused by some intracranial lesion.
Chastek paralysis
see thiamin nutritional deficiency.
compression paralysis
that caused by pressure on a nerve.
congenital paralysis
paralysis of the newborn. Many cases are due to birth trauma especially when lay persons exert excessive traction. Other causes are enzootic ataxia, inherited congenital paraplegias in calves and pigs, spina bifida and spinal dysraphism and occipito-alanto-axial malformations in foals and puppies.
conjugate paralysis
loss of ability to perform some parallel ocular movements.
coonhound paralysis
see idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis.
crossed paralysis
paralysis affecting one side of the head and the other side of the body.
curled toe paralysis
a disease of poultry caused by a nutritional deficiency of riboflavin. See also curled toe paralysis.
decubitus paralysis
paralysis due to pressure on a nerve from lying for a long time in one position.
esophageal paralysis
manifested by inability to swallow, and regurgitation.
facial paralysis
weakening or paralysis of the facial nerve. See also facial paralysis.
flaccid paralysis
paralysis characterized by loss of voluntary movement, decreased tone of limb muscles, absence of tendon reflexes and neurogenic atrophy.
immunological paralysis
the absence of immune response to a specific antigen. See also tolerance.
infectious bulbar paralysis
ischemic paralysis
local paralysis due to stoppage of circulation.
lambing paralysis
maternal obstetric paralysis in the ewe.
laryngeal paralysis
see laryngeal hemiplegia.
mixed paralysis
combined motor and sensory paralysis.
motor paralysis
paralysis of the voluntary muscles.
nerve paralysis
paralysis caused by damage to the local motor nerve supply. See also peripheral nerve paralysis (below).
obstetric paralysis
see maternal obstetric paralysis.
partial paralysis
see paresis.
peripheral nerve paralysis
the part deprived of its peripheral nerve supply shows flaccid paralysis, absence of spinal reflexes, muscle atrophy and a subnormal temperature.
postcalving paralysis
see maternal obstetric paralysis.
posterior paralysis
paralysis of the hindlimbs, tail and perineum. See also paraplegia.
range paralysis
sensory paralysis
loss of sensation resulting from a morbid process.
spastic paralysis
paralysis with rigidity of the muscles and heightened deep muscle reflexes.
tongue paralysis
see hypoglossal nerve paralysis.
References in periodicals archive ?
National and subnational acute flaccid paralysis surveillance indicators and number of confirmed wild poliovirus and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases, by country, including all countries with poliovirus transmission over the past five years (2010-2014) within the two currently polio-endemic World Health Organization regions (African Region and Eastern Mediterranean Region), 2013 * and 2014 * 2013 Subnational areas with Regional/ NPAFP rate National [greater than or NPAFP rate equal to] 2 WHO region/ Country AFP cases ([dagger]) ([section]) (%) AFR 20,547 5.
New enteroviruses, EV-93 and EV-94, associated with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Non-polio enteroviruses implicated in acute flaccid paralysis in northern Nigeria.
paragraph]) Defined in November 2012, LPD were districts with 1) confirmed polio cases in the previous 2 years, or 2) confirmed polio cases in one of the previous 2 years, plus reported "zero-dose" nonpolio acute flaccid paralysis cases in the previous 2 years, <90% estimated oral polio vaccine coverage in the previous three SIAs, average level of community awareness of SIAs <50% in previous three SIAs, and inaccessibility in the previous three SIAs.
section]) Vaccination histories of children aged 6-23 months with acute flaccid paralysis who do not test WPV-positive are used to estimate OPV coverage of the overall target population and to corroborate national reported routine vaccination coverage estimates.
The experience gained from the public health response to the importation in 2007, particularly in relation to tracing of contacts, isolation of cases, and quarantine of close contacts, has been incorporated into the national outbreak response plan for the investigation of cases of acute flaccid paralysis and suspected polio, published by the Australian government's Department of Health and Ageing (16).
Local clinicians are asked to refer patients with evidence of WNV disease, including encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis, or illness compatible with West Nile fever, for testing which is performed by 33 local public health laboratories and the state Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory (VRDL).
On May 9, 2013, the Somalia Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) reported a confirmed wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case in a girl aged 32 months from Mogadishu (Banadir Region), with onset of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) on April 18, 2013.
To the Editor: Although most human enterovirus (EV) (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae) infections are asymptomatic, they can cause upper respiratory illness, febrile rash, aseptic meningitis, pleurodynia, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, and neonatal sepsislike disease (1).
The 13 conditions listed in the guidelines included acute watery diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, acute respiratory infection, suspected malaria, suspected measles, suspected meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis, acute hemorrhagic fever syndrome, acute jaundice syndrome, unexplained fever, unexplained disease occurring in a cluster, other diarrhea, and all other conditions.
Meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis (poliomyelitis), mononeuritis, polyneuritis, and Reye syndrome constitute most of the illnesses (4).
Of the 486 WNV neuroinvasive disease patients, 273 (56%) had encephalitis, 183 (38%) had meningitis, and 30 (6%) had acute flaccid paralysis; 28 (93%) of the 30 patients with acute flaccid paralysis also had encephalitis or meningitis.

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