critical illness polyneuropathy

(redirected from Acute Polyneuropathy of the Critically Ill)

crit·i·cal ill·ness pol·y·neu·rop·a·thy

a diffuse axon loss sensorimotor polyneuropathy seen in severely ill patients, usually in the intensive care unit; most patients have been on multiple drugs and cannot be weaned from ventilatory support; electrodiagnostic studies show evidence of an axon loss polyneuropathy, predominantly motor; of unknown etiology.
A combination of neural damage and muscle degeneration in patients requiring prolonged critical care; a predominantly motor axonal polyneuropathy of acute onset occurring in a background of multisystem organ failure and systemic inflammation, often due to gram-negative sepsis
Diagnosis EMG studies reveal axonopathic features—e.g., fibrillations and sharp positive waves on concentric needle studies—decrease amplitude of muscle or nerve action potentials after stimulation; in half of cases, conduction velocity is decreased and distal latency times increased. Critical illness polyneuropathy is associated with increased mortality and rehabilitation problems

critical illness polyneuropathy

Abbreviation: CIP
A complication occurring in patients in intensive care in which failure to wean from mechanical ventilation is associated with distal limb weakness, loss of distal sensation from light touch or pinprick, and diminished reflexes; facial muscles and nerves are spared. Recovery typically occurs several weeks or months after resolution of the underlying disease. It is associated with the use of drugs, such as corticosteroids or paralytic agents, and neurological illnesses, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome.
See also: polyneuropathy
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