hepatic encephalopathy

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encephalopathy

 [en-sef″ah-lop´ah-the]
any degenerative disease of the brain.
AIDS encephalopathy HIV encephalopathy.
anoxic encephalopathy hypoxic encephalopathy.
biliary encephalopathy (bilirubin encephalopathy) kernicterus.
bovine spongiform encephalopathy a prion disease of adult cattle in the British Isles with neurologic symptoms. It is transmitted by feed containing protein in the form of meat and bone meal derived from infected animals. The etiologic agent is also the cause of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Called also mad cow disease.
boxer's encephalopathy (boxer's traumatic encephalopathy) a syndrome due to cumulative head blows absorbed in the boxing ring, characterized by slowing of mental function, occasional bouts of confusion, and scattered memory loss. It may progress to the more serious boxer's dementia. See also postconcussional syndrome.
dialysis encephalopathy a degenerative disease of the brain associated with longterm use of hemodialysis, marked by speech disorders and constant myoclonic jerks, progressing to global dementia.
hepatic encephalopathy a condition, usually occurring secondary to advanced liver disease, marked by disturbances of consciousness that may progress to deep coma (hepatic coma), psychiatric changes of varying degree, flapping tremor, and fetor hepaticus.
HIV encephalopathy (HIV-related encephalopathy) a progressive primary encephalopathy caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus type I, manifested by a variety of cognitive, motor, and behavioral abnormalities. Called also AIDS encephalopathy.
hypernatremic encephalopathy a severe hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by the hyperosmolarity accompanying hypernatremia and dehydration.
hypertensive encephalopathy a complex of cerebral phenomena such as headache, convulsions, and coma that occur in the course of malignant hypertension.
hypoxic encephalopathy encephalopathy caused by hypoxia from either decreased rate of blood flow or decreased oxygen content of arterial blood; mild cases cause temporary intellectual, visual, and motor disturbances, and severe cases can cause permanent brain damage within five minutes. Called also anoxic encephalopathy.
lead encephalopathy brain disease caused by lead poisoning.
mitochondrial encephalopathy encephalopathy associated with mitochondrial abnormalities, such as melas syndrome and merrf syndrome.
portal-systemic encephalopathy (portasystemic encephalopathy) hepatic encephalopathy.
progressive subcortical encephalopathy Schilder's disease.
subacute spongiform encephalopathy (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) prion disease.
traumatic encephalopathy
Wernicke's encephalopathy a neurological disorder characterized by confusion, apathy, drowsiness, ataxia of gait, nystagmus, and ophthalmoplegia; it is due to thiamine deficiency, usually from chronic alcohol abuse. It is almost invariably accompanied by or followed by korsakoff's syndrome and frequently accompanied by other nutritional polyneuropathies. See also wernicke-korsakoff syndrome.

por·tal-·sys·tem·ic en·ceph·a·lop·a·thy

an encephalopathy associated with cirrhosis of the liver, attributed to the passage of toxic nitrogenous substances from the portal to the systemic circulation; cerebral manifestations may include coma.

hepatic encephalopathy

hepatic encephalopathy

Hepatic coma Neurology A complication of hepatic failure due to ↑ ammonia in circulation, which may occur in decompensated cirrhosis or portocaval anastomosis; major finding in HE is cerebral edema, which ↑ morbidity; the Mayo Clinic devised a CT-based system–Brain Edema Severity Score for classifying HE Management It is uncertain whether treatment of cerebral edema ↑ survival in HE
Hepatic encephalopathy clinical forms
Acute HE Marked cognitive impairment and ↓ consciousness
Subacute HE Subtle; spontaneous or due to surgical portal-caval shunt
Chronic progressive HE Associated with dysarthria, ataxia, intention tremor, and choreoathetosis, and dementia  

por·tal-sys·tem·ic en·ceph·a·lop·a·thy

(pōr'tăl sis-tem'ik en-sef'a-lop'ă-thē)
An encephalopathy associated with cirrhosis, attributed to the passage of toxic nitrogenous substances from the portal to the systemic circulation; cerebral manifestations may include coma.
Synonym(s): hepatic encephalopathy (1) .

Reye syn·drome

(rī sin'drōm)
An acquired encephalopathy of young children that follows an acute febrile illness, usually influenza or varicella infection; characterized by recurrent vomiting, agitation, and lethargy, which may lead to coma with intracranial hypertension; ammonia and serum transaminases are elevated; death may result from edema of the brain and resulting cerebral herniation. Strongly associated with aspirin therapy.
Synonym(s): hepatic encephalopathy (2) .

hepatic encephalopathy

Brain disorder associated with severe liver disease with loss of liver function. Neurological malfunction, with behavioral and psychological changes, occurs.

Hepatic encephalopathy

Also called liver encephalopathy or hepatic coma, this is a disorder in which brain function deteriorates because toxic substances, which would normally be removed by the liver, accumulate in the bloodstream due to liver damage or disease. Early symptoms include subtle changes in logical thinking, personality and behavior. As the disorder progresses, signs of drowsiness and confusion increase until eventually the patient loses consciousness and lapses into coma.
Mentioned in: Liver Function Tests

encephalopathy

any degenerative disease of the brain.

biliary encephalopathy, bilirubin encephalopathy
kernicterus.
feline ischemic encephalopathy
an acute, ischemic cerebral necrosis causing various degrees of cerebral dysfunction including depression, ataxia, circling, behavioral changes, blindness and seizures.
hepatic encephalopathy
severe hepatic insufficiency may induce a syndrome of excitability, tremor, compulsive walking, head pressing, and apparent blindness, followed by coma and convulsions, a dummy syndrome. The probable pathogenesis of this hepatic encephalopathy is the accumulation of ammonia, because of the failure of the liver to metabolize it, and the development of a spongy degeneration of the brain as a direct result of the hyperammonemia. A similar pathogenesis is hypothesized for the genesis of a cerebrotoxicant in companion animals with congenital defects in hepatic vasculature. See also portacaval shunt, hepatitis.
hypernatremic encephalopathy
a severe hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by the hyperosmolarity accompanying hypernatremia and dehydration.
lead encephalopathy
brain disease caused by lead poisoning.
encephalopathy-microphthalmia syndrome
an inherited disorder in hereford cattle with ocular and neurological defects and muscular dystrophy. Affected calves are blind and unable to stand.
portosystemic encephalopathy
hepatic encephalopathy.
transmissible mink encephalopathy
transmissible disease of mink which resembles scrapie in sheep. There is a very long incubation period, hyperirritability, biting, paralysis, coma and death. The scrapie agent is believed to be the cause.
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