In contrast to the adaptive characters of the achenes
of wild Cannabis, the features facilitating disarticulation have been greatly weakened in domesticated forms.
Kaye (1999) discovered that removing the achene
from the winged portion of the anthocarp and then subjecting the achene
to alternating temperatures and photoperiods resulted in the highest percentage of germination.
As a precaution to prevent mold, achenes
were surface sterilized with a 5% v:v sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) solution in distilled water for 5 min with agitation.
In the "Evolution of Propagules Under Domestication" section, it was noted that achenes
in domesticated plants of C.
It produces multiple seeds per generative shoot, and it is characterized by the well-marked morphophysiological dormancy which allows achenes
to germinate at the next season after bearing.
pitted, pubescent with tufts or lines of small hairs; hypogynium 3-lobed, the lobes oblong to lanceolate 1.
Because in the wind treatment, autonomous self-fertilization and, in the diurnal and nocturnal treatments, both wind and autonomous self-fertilization were not prevented, we calculated net production of achenes
for each vector of pollen (diurnal visitors, nocturnal visitors, wind, and autonomous self-fertilization) in the following way (Table 1): net production of achenes
due to wind ([A.
Temperature requirements for dormancy break and germination in achenes
of the winter annual Lindheimera texana (Asteraceae).
relatively large, seldom less than 3.
The plant materials collected were further cleaned with a fanner, and achenes
were dried at the 50 [degrees]C to 8% moisture content.
Raynal and potential hybrids between the two taxa currently being conducted at Southern Illinois University in Edwardsville, 4) collect achenes
, if available, for permanent cold storage, 5) identify any potential new threats to the species, 6) outline recommendations for additional research, and 7) suggest management recommendations that may ensure the persistence of this species in Illinois.
The proportion of anthocarps developing a mature achene
were determined for each treatment and compared using a generalized linear model with logit link function (McCulloch and Searle, 2001) to determine whether there was a significant difference in proportion of mature achenes
developed under each treatment.