foreign body

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body

 [bod´e]
trunk (def. 1).
1. the largest and most important part of any organ.
2. any mass or collection of material.
acetone b's ketone bodies.
alkapton b's a class of substances with an affinity for alkali, found in the urine and causing the condition known as alkaptonuria. The compound commonly found, and most commonly referred to by the term, is homogentisic acid.
amygdaloid body a small mass of subcortical gray matter within the tip of the temporal lobe, anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the brain. It is part of the limbic system.
aortic b's small neurovascular structures on either side of the aorta in the region of the aortic arch, containing chemoreceptors that play a role in reflex regulation of respiration.
asbestos b's golden yellow bodies of various shapes, formed by the deposition of calcium salts, iron salts, and proteins on a spicule of asbestos, found in the lungs, lung secretions, and feces of patients with asbestosis.
Aschoff b's submiliary collections of cells and leukocytes in the interstitial tissues of the heart in the myocarditis that accompanies rheumatic fever; called also Aschoff's nodules.
asteroid body an irregularly star-shaped inclusion body found in the giant cells in sarcoidosis and other diseases.
Babès-Ernst body metachromatic granule.
Barr body sex chromatin.
basal body a modified centriole that occurs at the base of a flagellum or cilium.
carotid b's small neurovascular structures lying in the bifurcation of the right and left carotid arteries, containing chemoreceptors that monitor the oxygen content of the blood and help to regulate respiration.
ciliary body see ciliary body.
Donovan b's encapsulated bacteria (Calymmatobacterium granulomatis) found in lesions of granuloma inguinale, visible when a Wright-stained smear of infected tissue is viewed under a microscope.
body dysmorphic disorder a somatoform disorder in which a normal-appearing person is either preoccupied with an imagined defect in appearance or is overly concerned about a very slight physical anomaly. See also body image. Called also dysmorphophobia.
fimbriate body corpus fimbriatum.
foreign body a mass of material that is not normal to the place where it is found.
fruiting body a specialized structure of certain fungi that produces the spores.
geniculate body, lateral either of the two metathalamus eminences, one on each side just lateral to the medial geniculate bodies, marking the termination of the optic tract.
geniculate body, medial either of the two metathalamus eminences, one on each side just lateral to the superior colliculi, concerned with hearing.
hematoxylin body a dense, homogeneous particle, easily stainable with hematoxylin, consisting of nuclear material derived from an injured cell together with a small amount of cytoplasm. Hematoxylin bodies occur in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lymphocytes that ingest such particles are known as le cells. Called also LE body.
Howell's b's (Howell-Jolly b's) smooth, round remnants of nuclear chromatin seen in erythrocytes in megaloblastic and hemolytic anemia, in various leukemias and after splenectomy.
body image the total concept, including conscious and unconscious feelings, thoughts, and perceptions, that a person has of his or her own body as an object in space independent and apart from other objects. The body image develops during infancy and childhood from exploration of the body surface and orifices, from development of physical abilities, and from play and comparison of the self with others. Changes in body image are particularly important in adolescence when attention is focused on appearance and attractiveness and relations with others. Body image is strongly influenced by parental attitudes that give the child a perception of certain body parts as good, clean, and attractive, or bad, dirty, and repulsive. The evolution of body image continues throughout life and incorporates such factors as a person's style of dress, hair style, and use of makeup, which symbolize social and professional status and other feelings about the self.

Many clinical syndromes involve disturbances of body image. Disturbed body image is a nursing diagnosis that was approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as confusion in the mental picture of one's physical self. Surgery or trauma involving disfigurement or loss of a body part can be very threatening to a patient. Diseases involving a loss of body function, such as stroke syndrome, paraplegia, quadriplegia, coronary heart disease, and bowel or bladder incontinence, and diseases involving disfiguring skin lesions or the feeling of “rotting away” as in cancer or gangrene, can all cause changes in body image. Body image is frequently disturbed in schizophrenia, and patients may feel that their body or its parts are changing in size or shape or are ugly or threatening. Rape or violent physical assault can disturb the feeling of being secure in one's own body. Changes in body image involving sexual attractiveness or sexual identity, such as surgery or trauma involving the genitals or breasts and tubal ligation, hysterectomy, or vasectomy, can be especially difficult for the patient to deal with. Intrusive therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, such as insertion of a nasogastric tube, bladder catheterization, administration of intravenous fluids, endoscopy, and cardiac catheterization, can also threaten a patient's body image.

The reaction of a patient to an alteration in body image can include mourning the loss of the former body image, fear of rejection by significant others, hostility, and experiencing of “phantom” sensations from missing body parts. Patients with less ability to cope with their loss may respond with denial or depression. This can lead to a rejection of the altered body image and feelings of depersonalization that can involve avoidance of interpersonal contact and an unwillingness to discuss the deformity or to accept corrective medical treatment or vocational rehabilitation.
inclusion b's round, oval, or irregular-shaped bodies in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells, as in disease caused by viral infection, such as rabies, smallpox, and herpes.
ketone b's see ketone bodies.
lamellar body keratinosome.
Lafora's b's intracytoplasmic inclusions consisting of a complex of glycoprotein and acid mucopolysaccharide; widespread deposits are found in Lafora's disease, a type of epilepsy.
Leishman-Donovan b's round or oval bodies found in the reticuloendothelial cells, especially those of the spleen and liver, in kala-azar; they are nonflagellate intracellular forms of Leishmania donovani. Also used to designate similar forms of Leishmania tropica found in macrophages in lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
mamillary body (mammillary body) either of the pair of small spherical masses in the interpeduncular fossa of the midbrain, forming part of the hypothalamus.
Masson b's cellular tissue that fills the pulmonary alveoli and alveolar ducts in rheumatic pneumonia; they may be modified Aschoff's bodies.
molluscum b's large homogeneous intracytoplasmic inclusions found in the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum in molluscum contagiosum, which contain replicating virus particles and cellular debris.
multilamellar body any of the osmiophilic, lipid-rich, layered bodies found in the great alveolar cells of the lung.
Negri b's oval or round bodies in the nerve cells of animals dead of rabies.
Nissl b's large granular bodies that stain with basic dyes, forming the reticular substance of the cytoplasm of neurons, composed of rough endoplasmic reticulum and free polyribosomes; ribonucleoprotein is one of their main constituents. Called also Nissl's granules.
olivary body olive (def. 2).
paraaortic b's see para-aortic bodies.
pineal body see pineal body.
pituitary body pituitary gland.
polar b's
1. the small cells consisting of a tiny bit of cytoplasm and a nucleus; they result from unequal division of the primary oocyte (first polar body) and, if fertilization occurs, of the secondary oocyte (second polar body).
2. metachromatic granules located at one or both ends of a bacterial cell.
psammoma b's usually microscopic, laminated masses of calcareous material, occurring in both benign and malignant epithelial and connective-tissue tumors, and sometimes associated with chronic inflammation.
quadrigeminal b's corpora quadrigemina.
body of sternum the second or main part of the sternum, bounded by the manubrium above and the xiphoid process below. Called also gladiolus and corpus sterni.
striate body corpus striatum.
trachoma b's inclusion bodies found in clusters in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells of the conjunctiva in trachoma.
vitreous body the transparent gel filling the inner portion of the eyeball between the lens and retina. Called also vitreous and vitreous humor.
wolffian body mesonephros.

for·eign bod·y (FB),

anything of material substance in the tissues or cavities of the body that has been introduced from without, and that is not rapidly absorbable.

foreign body

[fôr′in]
Etymology: Fr, forain, alien; AS, bodig
any object or substance found in an organ or tissue in which it does not belong under normal circumstances, such as a bolus of food in the trachea or a particle of dust in the eye.

foreign body

A microscopic or macroscopic object introduced into the human economy at the time of an invasive procedure–ie iatrogenic, by accident, or by intent
Foreign body types
Iatrogenic, eg sutures, sponges, instruments left during surgery, metals and plastics that replace or enhance failing or non-functioning body parts, eg artificial joints, limbs and pacemakers
Accidental/unintentional, eg from abrasions and open wounds in various accidents, or in gun shot wounds, which may elicit foreign body-type granuloma formation, or
Intentional, eg introduced in the context of sexual deviancy, for inflicting pleasure or pain, commonly, in the anorectum or vagina, including an array of 'jeux d'amour', eg vibrators, bottles, light bulbs, eggs, and others

for·eign bod·y

(fōr'ĕn bod'ē)
Anything in the tissues or cavities of the body that has been introduced there, not present under normal circumstances, and not rapidly absorbable.

foreign body

; FB material abnormal to its site of location, promoting a painful and inflammatory rejection response by local tissues; may predispose to local hypergranulation tissue and bacterial infection (see pyogenic granuloma Table 1)
  • endogenous FB e.g. nail spike/edge of nail plate; slough; synovial fluid that has leaked from a traumatized joint capsule; epithelial pearls; Box 1; see inclusion cyst

  • exogenous FB e.g. wood or metal splinters; scraps of wire or hair

Box 1: Treatment of a foreign body
  • Examine: the FB may be a nail spike/splinter, a thorn, a wood splinter, a scrap of metal swarf, a shard of glass, a sea urchin spine, a hair, a small feather

  • The presence of a FB will cause local pain, inflammation and perhaps a degree of local tissue breakdown

  • The patient history will often indicate the nature of the FB

  • Either open at the point of entry, using a sterile blade

  • Or apply Morison's paste under an occlusive dressing for 24 hours, then open at the point of entry

  • Remove the FB, using a fine blade or forceps

  • (Note: Items like thorns can be extruded from soft tissues by applying firm digital pressure to the tissue either side of the foreign body)

  • Assist drainage, and cleanse area by immersion in warm hypertonic saline foot bath

  • Apply a topical liquid or powder broad-spectrum antiseptic, e.g. Betadine

  • Apply a suitable sterile dressing and deflective pad

  • Review in 2-7 days

Table 1: Treatment of local sepsis
MnemonicRationaleTreatment modality
OOperateRemove the cause of the infection where possible, e.g. remove focal hyperkeratosis/foreign body/nail spike
CCleanseIrrigate area/cleanse cavity with Warmasol delivered under pressure from a sterile syringe
HHeatAssist drainage of pus/exudate by applying heat, e.g. immersion in a warm hypertonic NaCl bath
AAntisepticApply a liquid or powder antiseptic (e.g. Betadine)
DDressCover the lesion with a sterile dressing (e.g. sterile gauze; Lyofoam)
RRestImpose rest, e.g. deflective padding; shoe modification; walking cast; crutches, as necessary
AReappointArrange to review case in 24-72 hours
RReviewAt the subsequent appointment, review progress
If resolution has been initiated, continue to treat as above (O-A) and review weekly until healing is complete
If the infection has not improved, arrange for antibiosis, and continue to review and dress until healing is complete
RReferRefer for specialist review via GP: remember, slow-to-resolve infection can characterize undiagnosed diabetes, or other 'at-risk' patient category

Use all normal preoperative procedures; keep infected lesions covered until ready to treat; take a swab for pathology laboratory analysis of any exudate; use a sterile dressings pack; follow the OCH-A-DRARR treatment mnemonic.

'At-risk' patients presenting with infection or patients presenting with acute or spreading infection should be treated using the OCH-A-DRARR protocol, but provided with or referred for immediate antibiosis.

for·eign bod·y

(fōr'ĕn bod'ē)
Anything in the tissues or cavities of the body that has been introduced there, is not present under normal circumstances, and is not rapidly absorbable.

foreign body,

n an object or substance found in the body in an organ or tissue in which it does not belong under normal circumstances, such as a bolus of food in the trachea or a particle of dust in the eye. See also body, foreign.

foreign body

plant or mineral matter which finds its way into organs and tissues. The syndromes caused are described elsewhere under the specific organ or cavity, e.g. oral, gastric, corneal.

constricting foreign body
elastic bands, cords and collars that have become too small which may become embedded in skin and subcutaneous tissues to the point of disappearing. Some objects are placed maliciously on the scrotum, tail, neck, ears or muzzle of dogs and cats.
esophageal foreign body
causes complete, where obstruction is by a solid object, blockage of ingesta or regurgitus, or partial, e.g. wire lodged across lumen, when fluid and gas may pass unimpaired.
foreign body giant cell
see giant cell.
foreign body glossitis
inflammation of the tongue due to penetration or laceration by a foreign body.
linear foreign body
twine, fishing line, and mane hair has the effect of telescoping/pleating a length of intestine and causing obstruction without compromising the blood supply to the part but with the probability of cutting into the mucosa and possibly through the bowel wall. The characteristic radiographic appearance of intestinal pleating assists in diagnosis.
penetrating foreign body b's
long thin foreign bodies, e.g. those penetrating the reticular wall in traumatic reticuloperitonitis, or the sole of the horse's foot.
rectal foreign body
objects passing through the intestinal tract may cause proctitis and difficulties in passing through the anus with straining and blood in the feces. Malicious insertion may cause penetration of the rectal wall and death from peritonitis.