MTS

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MTS

Abbreviation for:
Manchester triage system
mesial temporal sclerosis
modified trichrome stain
mouse thyroid stimulator
Muir Torre syndrome

sclerosis

(skle-ro'sis) [Gr. sklerosis, hardening]
A hardening or induration of an organ or tissue, esp. one due to excessive growth of fibrous tissue. See: arteriosclerosis; cerebrosclerosissclerotic (-rot'ik), adjective

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Abbreviation: ALS
Motor neuron disease.

annular sclerosis

Sclerosis in which a hardened substance forms a band about the spinal cord.

arterial sclerosis

Arteriosclerosis.

arteriolar sclerosis

Sclerosis of the arterioles.

diffuse sclerosis

Sclerosis affecting large areas of the brain and spinal cord.

hyperplastic sclerosis

Medial sclerosis.

insular sclerosis

multiple sclerosis.

intimal sclerosis

Atherosclerosis.

lateral sclerosis

Sclerosis of the lateral column of the spinal cord.
See: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

lobar sclerosis

Sclerosis of the cerebrum resulting in mental disturbances.

medial sclerosis

Sclerosis involving the tunica media of arteries, usually the result of involutional changes accompanying aging. Synonym: hyperplastic sclerosis

mesial temporal sclerosis

Abbreviation: MTS
Atrophy of neurons and scarring in the temporal lobe of the brain, typically in the hippocampus. It is both a cause and an effect of temporal lobe epilepsy. Some patients with focal seizures and a clearly defined area of MTS have significant improvement in seizure activity when the affected area of the temporal lobe is surgically removed.

multiple sclerosis

Abbreviation: MS
A chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which there is destruction of myelin within several regions of the brain and spinal cord at different times. This results in temporary, repetitive, or sustained disruptions in nerve impulse conduction, causing symptoms such as muscular weakness, loss of coordination, numbness, visual disturbances, loss of control of bowel, bladder, and sexual functions. The clinical picture in MS depends upon the extent of demyelination. Multiple sclerosis is a relatively common disorder: more than 400,000 Americans are affected, of whom the majority (about 390,000) are adults. Multiple sclerosis usually begins between ages 20 and 40; women are twice as likely to have the disease as men, and European-Americans are more likely to be affected than African-Americans or Asian-Americans. Four main categories of MS are currently recognized. The benign variant is marked by several episodes of nervous system dysfunction, followed by complete recovery. The primary progressive variant is marked by rapid loss of neurological functions that do not resolve, causing severe functional impairments that worsen over time. More common than either of these types of MS are the two relapsing-remitting variants. In patients with these disorders, neurological deficits develop and then improve either completely or partially. In patients who achieve only partial restoration of neurological function, secondary progression of the disease may result in a gradual accumulation of visual, motor, or sensory disabilities. Synonym: insular sclerosis

About half of all patients with MS become unable to work within 10 to 15 years of the first onset of symptoms. Within 25 years of the first symptoms, half of these patients cannot walk.

Etiology

The cause of the disease is unknown although much evidence suggests that T lymphocytes that injure nerve cells and nerve sheaths play an important role, that is, that the disease has an autoimmune basis. Some evidence links MS to hypovitaminosis of vitamin D.

Symptoms

Nearly a quarter of all patients with MS initially develop visual disturbances or blindness. Other consequences of the disease include sudden or progressive weakness in one or more limbs, muscular spasticity, nystagmus, fatigue, tremor, gait instability, recurrent urinary tract infections (caused by bladder dysfunction), incontinence, and alterations in mood, including euphoria, irritability, and depression. See: retrobulbar neuritis

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is usually based on the patient’s history. MRI may detect areas of the brain and/or spinal cord with demyelination. Lumbar puncture is often performed to assess patients for oligoclonal bands (immunoglobulins released into the cerebrospinal fluid due to inflammation).

Treatment

Although there is no known cure for MS, corticosteroids, interferon-alpha, and glatiramer may be used in specific settings to reduce disability or the frequency of relapses and the progression of disease in patients with some variants of MS. Treatment should be individualized because these therapies may be expensive, ineffective in benign or primary progressive disease, and poorly tolerated by some patients. Symptomatic relief (e.g., of spasticity with muscle relaxants, or of bladder dysfunction with anticholinergic drugs) is provided as needed.

Patient care

The health care professional provides support to patients with MS and their families. The patient is advised to avoid fatigue, overexertion, exposure to extreme heat or cold, and stressful situations, and is encouraged to follow a regular plan of daily activity and exercise based on levels of tolerance. The patient is taught about symptoms that may occur during exacerbations of the disease and the need to adapt the plan of care to changing needs, as well as about the administration of prescribed medications. Physical and occupational therapy referral assist the patient to maintain muscle tone and joint mobility, decrease spasticity, improve balance and coordination, and increase morale. Massages, relaxing baths, yoga, and tai chi may prove helpful. A nutritious, well-balanced diet with adequate roughage and fluids is recommended. Bladder and bowel training programs, self-catheterization, and the use of condom catheters may be required. Independence is encouraged by assisting the patient to develop new methods for activities of daily living (ADL) performance and optimal functioning. Both the patient and family are encouraged to promote safety in the home and the work environment. For support and information, the patient and family should be referred to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (800-FIGHT-MS; www.nmss.org).

myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis

Schilder's disease.

neural sclerosis

Sclerosis with chronic inflammation of a nerve trunk with branches.

nuclear sclerosis

An increase in the refractive index of the eye's crystalline lens, which culminates in the development of nuclear cataracts. Before the cataract fully opacifies, the patient's near vision may improve, a phenomenon known as senopia or second sight.

progressive systemic sclerosis

Abbreviation: PSS
A chronic disease of unknown cause that occurs four times as frequently in women as in men. It causes sclerosis of the skin and other organs, including the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, heart, and kidneys. The skin is taut, firm, and edematous and is firmly bound to subcutaneous tissue, which often causes limitation of the range of motion. The skin also feels tough and leathery, may itch, and later becomes hyperpigmented. The skin changes usually precede the development of signs of visceral involvement. See: CREST syndrome Synonym: systemic sclerosis

Treatment

There is no specific therapy. General supportive therapy is indicated. A great number of drugs including corticosteroids, vasodilators, d-penicillamine, and immunosuppressive agents have been tried. Physical therapy will help maintain range of motion and muscular strength but will not influence the course of joint disease.

renal sclerosis

Nephrosclerosis.

systemic sclerosis

Progressive systemic sclerosis.

tuberous sclerosis

Abbreviation: TS
An autosomal dominant disorder in which multiple benign tumors appear in the skin, brain, heart, and kidneys of affected children. Infants born with this disease may have facial angiofibromas, astrocytomas of the CNS, hamartomas of the retina, and other lesions, producing hydrocephalus, mental retardation, autism, and seizures.
Synonym: Bourneville disease; tuberous sclerosis complex

vascular sclerosis

Atherosclerosis.

venous sclerosis

Phlebosclerosis.

mesial temporal sclerosis

Abbreviation: MTS
Atrophy of neurons and scarring in the temporal lobe of the brain, typically in the hippocampus. It is both a cause and an effect of temporal lobe epilepsy. Some patients with focal seizures and a clearly defined area of MTS have significant improvement in seizure activity when the affected area of the temporal lobe is surgically removed.
See also: sclerosis
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