AURKA

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AURKA

A gene on chromosome 20q13 that encodes Aurora kinase A, which is involved in regulating many early mitotic events such as entry into mitosis. Aurora A levels rise during the G2 phase and peak early in mitosis. It is highly expressed in the testes, as well as in colon, ovarian, prostate, neuroblastoma, breast and cervical cancer cell lines.
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vitis strains ARK-1, ARK-2, ARK-3, and VAR03-1 were selected as biological control agents against grapevine crown gall.
Among these, strain ARK-1 was found to be the strongest among the strains tested for inhibiting tumor formation.
27) We are interested to clarify the mechanism of control of ARK-1 and why ARK-1 is overwhelmingly powerful in suppressing tumor formation compared with K84 and VAR06-30, and we discuss it in a later section.
14-16) Treatment using ARK-1 showed the highest control effect and reduced the incidence of galled plants by an average 85.
Thus, we conducted field trials to verify the control effect of strain ARK-1 by root dipping method with nursery stocks of grapevine in several vineyards in Japan.
23) Roots of plants were soaked for 1 h in a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 ([10.
001), indicating that ARK-1 treatment significantly reduced the disease incidence.
Meta-analysis of the seven field trials showed strong evidence that ARK-1 was effective in controlling grapevine crown gall by application in the field.
In addition to grapevines, we have evidence that ARK-1 can effectively control apple, Japanese pear, peach, rose, and tomato crown gall caused by R.
In order to determine the rate of ARK-1 survival on grapevine roots in the soil, an antibiotic-resistant mutant of ARK-1, ARK-1sc, was developed.
Thus, the result for ARK-1sc indicated that strain ARK-1 not only established populations in the rhizosphere of grapevine but also persisted inside roots for up to 3 years.
In order to understand the mechanism of the biological effects of ARK-1, an inoculation study was conducted with three different forms of ARK-1: a cell suspension of ARK-1 as "live cells"; a cell suspension of ARK-1 autoclaved at 121 [degrees]C in 15 minutes as "dead cells"; and a culture filtrate of ARK-1 by filtering with a syringe filter unit (0.