AF

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AF

1 abbreviation for atrial fibrillation.
2 abbreviation for atrial flutter.

AF

Abbreviation for antifungal.

fibrillation

(fib?ri-la'shon, fib?) [ fibrilla]
1. Formation of fibrils.
2. Quivering or spontaneous contraction of individual muscle fibers.
3. An abnormal bioelectric potential occurring in neuropathies and myopathies.

atrial fibrillation

Abbreviation: AF
The most common cardiac dysrhythmia, affecting as many as 5 – 10% of people age 70 and over. It is marked by rapid, irregular electrical activity in the atria, resulting in ineffective ejection of blood into the ventricles and an irregular ventricular response (apical pulse rate). Blood that eddies in the atria may occasionally form clots that may embolize, esp. to the brain, but also to other organs. As a result, AF is an important risk factor for stroke. In the U.S., about 75,000 strokes occur each year in patients with AF. AF may also contribute to other diseases and conditions, including congestive heart failure, dyspnea on exertion, and syncope.

Etiology

AF may occur in otherwise healthy persons with no structural heart disease (lone AF), e.g., during stress or exercise. It may also develop secondary to alcohol withdrawal; in patients with underlying arrhythmias (such as tachybrady syndrome or Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome); after cardiac surgery; during cocaine intoxication; in hypertensive urgencies, hypoxia, or hypercarbia (carbon dioxide retention); during myocardial infarction; in pericarditis and pulmonary embolism; or as a consequence of congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sepsis, or thyrotoxicosis or other metabolic disorders. Chronic AF, also known as persistent, permanent, or sustained AF, usually occurs in patients with structural abnormalities of the heart, such as cardiomyopathies; enlargement of the left atrium; mitral valve disease; or rheumatic heart disease. Paroxysmal AF is AF that occurs intermittently and resolves spontaneously. Recurrent AF is a term used to describe two or more episodes of AF occurring in the same person.

Symptoms

Some patients may not notice rapid or irregular beating of their heart even though the ventricular rate rises to 200 bpm. Most patients, however, report some of the following symptoms at slower heart rates (100 bpm or greater): dizziness, dyspnea, palpitations, presyncope, or syncope.

Diagnosis

Patients who present with their first episode of atrial fibrillation are typically evaluated with thyroid function tests, cardiac enzymes, a complete blood count, and blood chemistries. In patients with a cardiac murmur or evidence of congestive heart failure, echocardiography is typically performed.

Treatment

The acutely ill (unstable) patient with a rapid ventricular response (> 150/m) and signs or symptoms of angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, hypotension, or hypoxia should be prepared for immediate cardioversion. Patients who are stable and tolerate the rhythm disturbance without these signs or symptoms are typically treated first with drugs to slow the heart rhythm, e.g., calcium-channel blockers, beta blockers, or digoxin. For most patients with atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response, controlling the rapid heart rate alleviates symptoms. Electrical or chemical cardioversion of initial episodes of atrial fibrillation may successfully restore sinus rhythm, often for a period of several months to as long as a year but does not affect morbidity or mortality. Anticoagulation (as with warfarin, which requires frequent dosage adjustments and close monitoring, or with factor Xa inhibitors, which do not) markedly reduces the risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation. Warfarin or related vitamin K antagonists should be given for several weeks before, and about a week after, elective cardioversion, and to patients in chronic AF who do not return to sinus rhythm with treatment. Patients who elect not to use anticoagulants or factor Xa inhibitors for chronic AF, or for whom these agents pose too great a risk of bleeding, are usually given 325 mg of aspirin daily. AF can also be treated with radiofrequency catheter ablation, or with surgical techniques to isolate the source of the rhythm disturbance in the atria or pulmonary veins. See: ablation

Patient care

The acutely ill patient is placed on bedrest and monitored closely, with frequent assessments of vital signs, oxygen saturation, heart rate and rhythm, and 12-lead electrocardiography. Supplemental oxygen is supplied and intravenous access established. Preparations for cardioversion (if necessary) and the medications prescribed for the patient are explained. Patients should be carefully introduced to the risks, benefits, and alternatives to stroke prevention with anticoagulation. Stroke is one of the most serious complications for patients with atrial fibrillation. The risk of embolic stroke in AF is about 5% annually without anticoagulation but lower with it. However, the use of anticoagulants increases the risk of bleeding. Patients treated with anticoagulants should maintain an International Normalized Ratio (INR) in the 2.0 to 3.0 range. Regular assessment of the INR reduces the hazard of serious bleeding.

lone atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation that is not caused by or associated with underlying disease of the heart muscle, heart valves, coronary arteries, pulmonary circulation, or thyroid gland. Prognosis seems better for this type of atrial fibrillation than for that which results from anatomical or metabolic abnormalities.

paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

Intermittent episodes of atrial fibrillation.

ventricular fibrillation

Abbreviation: VFIB
A treatable but lethal dysrhythmia present in nearly half of all cases of cardiac arrest. It is marked on the electrocardiogram by rapid, chaotic nonrepetitive waveforms; and clinically by the absence of effective circulation of blood (pulselessness). Rapid defibrillation (applying unsynchronized electrical shocks to the heart) is the key to treatment. Basic measures, such as opening the airway and providing rescue breaths and chest compressions, should be undertaken until the defibrillator is available.
See: defibrillation; advanced cardiac life support

atrial fibrillation

Abbreviation: AF
The most common cardiac dysrhythmia, affecting as many as 5 – 10% of people age 70 and over. It is marked by rapid, irregular electrical activity in the atria, resulting in ineffective ejection of blood into the ventricles and an irregular ventricular response (apical pulse rate). Blood that eddies in the atria may occasionally form clots that may embolize, esp. to the brain, but also to other organs. As a result, AF is an important risk factor for stroke. In the U.S., about 75,000 strokes occur each year in patients with AF. AF may also contribute to other diseases and conditions, including congestive heart failure, dyspnea on exertion, and syncope.

Etiology

AF may occur in otherwise healthy persons with no structural heart disease (lone AF), e.g., during stress or exercise. It may also develop secondary to alcohol withdrawal; in patients with underlying arrhythmias (such as tachybrady syndrome or Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome); after cardiac surgery; during cocaine intoxication; in hypertensive urgencies, hypoxia, or hypercarbia (carbon dioxide retention); during myocardial infarction; in pericarditis and pulmonary embolism; or as a consequence of congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sepsis, or thyrotoxicosis or other metabolic disorders. Chronic AF, also known as persistent, permanent, or sustained AF, usually occurs in patients with structural abnormalities of the heart, such as cardiomyopathies; enlargement of the left atrium; mitral valve disease; or rheumatic heart disease. Paroxysmal AF is AF that occurs intermittently and resolves spontaneously. Recurrent AF is a term used to describe two or more episodes of AF occurring in the same person.

Symptoms

Some patients may not notice rapid or irregular beating of their heart even though the ventricular rate rises to 200 bpm. Most patients, however, report some of the following symptoms at slower heart rates (100 bpm or greater): dizziness, dyspnea, palpitations, presyncope, or syncope.

Diagnosis

Patients who present with their first episode of atrial fibrillation are typically evaluated with thyroid function tests, cardiac enzymes, a complete blood count, and blood chemistries. In patients with a cardiac murmur or evidence of congestive heart failure, echocardiography is typically performed.

Treatment

The acutely ill (unstable) patient with a rapid ventricular response (> 150/m) and signs or symptoms of angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, hypotension, or hypoxia should be prepared for immediate cardioversion. Patients who are stable and tolerate the rhythm disturbance without these signs or symptoms are typically treated first with drugs to slow the heart rhythm, e.g., calcium-channel blockers, beta blockers, or digoxin. For most patients with atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response, controlling the rapid heart rate alleviates symptoms. Electrical or chemical cardioversion of initial episodes of atrial fibrillation may successfully restore sinus rhythm, often for a period of several months to as long as a year but does not affect morbidity or mortality. Anticoagulation (as with warfarin, which requires frequent dosage adjustments and close monitoring, or with factor Xa inhibitors, which do not) markedly reduces the risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation. Warfarin or related vitamin K antagonists should be given for several weeks before, and about a week after, elective cardioversion, and to patients in chronic AF who do not return to sinus rhythm with treatment. Patients who elect not to use anticoagulants or factor Xa inhibitors for chronic AF, or for whom these agents pose too great a risk of bleeding, are usually given 325 mg of aspirin daily. AF can also be treated with radiofrequency catheter ablation, or with surgical techniques to isolate the source of the rhythm disturbance in the atria or pulmonary veins. See: ablation

Patient care

The acutely ill patient is placed on bedrest and monitored closely, with frequent assessments of vital signs, oxygen saturation, heart rate and rhythm, and 12-lead electrocardiography. Supplemental oxygen is supplied and intravenous access established. Preparations for cardioversion (if necessary) and the medications prescribed for the patient are explained. Patients should be carefully introduced to the risks, benefits, and alternatives to stroke prevention with anticoagulation. Stroke is one of the most serious complications for patients with atrial fibrillation. The risk of embolic stroke in AF is about 5% annually without anticoagulation but lower with it. However, the use of anticoagulants increases the risk of bleeding. Patients treated with anticoagulants should maintain an International Normalized Ratio (INR) in the 2.0 to 3.0 range. Regular assessment of the INR reduces the hazard of serious bleeding.

See also: fibrillation

flutter

[AS. floterian, to fly about]
A tremulous movement, esp. of the heart, as in atrial and ventricular flutter.

atrial flutter

Abbreviation: AF
A cardiac dysrhythmia marked by rapid (about 300 beats per minute) regular atrial beating, and usually a regular ventricular response (whose rate may vary depending on the conduction of electrical impulses from the atria through the atrioventricular node). On the electrocardiogram, the fluttering of the atria is best seen in leads II, III, and F as “sawtooth” deflections between the QRS complexes. Atrial flutter usually converts to sinus rhythm with low-voltage direct current (DC) cardioversion or atrial pacing.

Symptoms

Patients may be asymptomatic, esp. when ventricular rates are less than 100 bpm. During tachycardic episodes, patients often report palpitations, dizziness, presyncope, or syncope.

Treatment

Radiofrequency catheter ablation of the responsible circuit eliminates the arrhythmia about 90% of the time.

diaphragmatic flutter

Rapid contractions of the diaphragm. They may occur intermittently or be present for an extended period. The cause is unknown.

mediastinal flutter

Abnormal side-to-side motion of the mediastinum during respiration.

ventricular flutter

Ventricular contractions of the heart at 250 beats per minute, creating a high-amplitude, sawtooth pattern on the surface electrocardiogram. The rhythm is lethal unless immediate life support and resuscitation are provided.

atrial flutter

Abbreviation: AF
A cardiac dysrhythmia marked by rapid (about 300 beats per minute) regular atrial beating, and usually a regular ventricular response (whose rate may vary depending on the conduction of electrical impulses from the atria through the atrioventricular node). On the electrocardiogram, the fluttering of the atria is best seen in leads II, III, and F as “sawtooth” deflections between the QRS complexes. Atrial flutter usually converts to sinus rhythm with low-voltage direct current (DC) cardioversion or atrial pacing.

Symptoms

Patients may be asymptomatic, esp. when ventricular rates are less than 100 bpm. During tachycardic episodes, patients often report palpitations, dizziness, presyncope, or syncope.

Treatment

Radiofrequency catheter ablation of the responsible circuit eliminates the arrhythmia about 90% of the time.

See also: flutter

Patient discussion about AF

Q. SVT and AF, Hearts that go fast to slow or any others probs with the beats of any kind and Ablation of hearts I have had Ablation done once and I am still having passing out spells and still on 50mg toprol 2 times a day till two days ago, now I am on 150 to 200 aday again. Its not the first time I have had to up meds. I had ablation down 4/22/05. I can breath better now but but it didnt take it away as you can tell. Now Dr Leonardie would like to do it again . This is the big ????! Will it or can it work 100% this time, or will it hit and miss some again???? MTT

A. Well I can understand the frustration of having to go through this procedure yet another time. There are no guarantees in medicine. You should follow your doctor's advice, as another proceudre might be more helpful than the last one. However you should keep in mind that nothing is for sure.

More discussions about AF
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