ADP


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adenosine

 [ah-den´o-sēn]
1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d-ribose and adenine. It is a structural subunit of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The bond between the phosphate groups in ADP or the two bonds between phosphate groups in ATP are called high-energy bonds, because hydrolysis of a high-energy bond provides a large amount of free energy that can be used to drive other processes that would not otherwise occur. The energy that is derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, or proteins is used to synthesize ATP. The energy stored in ATP is then used directly or indirectly to drive all other cellular processes that require energy, of which there are four major types: (1) the transport of molecules and ions across cell membranes against concentration gradients, which maintains the internal environment of the cell and produces the membrane potential for the conduction of nerve impulses; (2) the contraction of muscle fibers and other fibers producing the motion of cells; (3) the synthesis of chemical compounds; (4) the synthesis of other high-energy compounds.
Adenosine.
2. a preparation of adenosine, which acts as a cardiac depressant of automaticity in the sinus node and conduction in the atrioventricular node and as a vasodilator. It is used as an antiarrhythmic and is also used to cause coronary vasodilation during myocardial perfusion imaging in patients who cannot exercise adequately to perform an exercise stress test, administered intravenously.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate a cyclic nucleotide, adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, involved in the action of many hormones, including catecholamines, ACTH, and vasopressin. The hormone binds to a specific receptor on the cell membrane of target cells. This activates an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which produces cyclic AMP from ATP. Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger activating other enzymes within the cell. Abbreviated 3′,5′-AMP, cAMP, and cyclic AMP.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is then converted back to ATP by the metabolic processes oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
adenosine monophosphate (AMP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Called also adenylic acid.
adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. Examples are the splitting of ATP in muscle contraction and the transport of ions across cell membranes.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. Free energy is supplied to drive metabolic reactions, to transport molecules against concentration gradients (active transport), and to produce mechanical motion (contraction of myofibrils and microtubules), when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate or to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate.

ADP

Abbreviation for adenosine 5'-diphosphate.

ADP

adenosine diphosphate.

ADP

(ā′dē′pē′)
n.
A nucleotide, C10H15N5O10P2, that is composed of adenosine and two linked phosphate groups, and that is converted to ATP for the storage of energy in living cells.

ADP

abbreviation for adenosine diphosphate.

ADP

Abbreviation for:
adenosine diphosphate, see there 
adductor pollicis
advance planning document
after depolarising potential
Animal Disease & Parasite Research Division (of the USDA)
aortic diastolic pressure
approved drug product
assistant director of pathology (Medspeak-UK)
Association for Disabled Professionals
automatic data processing, see there (Medspeak-UK)

ADP

Abbreviation for adenosine 5'-diphosphate.

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate. See ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE.
Fig. 15 ADP. General structure of ADP and ATP. P = phosphate group.click for a larger image
Fig. 15 ADP . General structure of ADP and ATP. P = phosphate group.

ADP (adenosine diphosphate)

a molecule consisting of an ADENOSINE unit on to which are attached two phosphate groups, which are joined by a high-energy bond. ADP can be converted to ATP by the addition of inorganic phosphate and about 34 kJ energy. See Fig. 15 . See ATP for molecular structure.

ADP

adenosine diphosphate

adenosine triphosphate

; ATP; adenosine diphosphate; ADP intracellular biochemicals; ATP releases energy (to fuel intracellular reactions) when hydrolysed by enzymic action into ADP; ADP is later reconverted to ATP by energy-dependent enzymic reactions

ATP

adenosine triphosphate; energy is released within a cell when ATP is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

ADP

1. adenosine diphosphate.
2. automatic data processing.

ADP-ribosylation
the attachment of ADP-ribose to elongation factor 2 that blocks the translocation of the nascent polypeptide. The mode of action of diphtheria toxin.
References in periodicals archive ?
401(a)(4) both before and after the QNECs are used in the ADP (or ACP) test.
The contribution can be discretionary; that is, the employer can decide whether to correct a failure to satisfy the ADP test by distribution or by QNEC (or both) at the end of each year, provided that the plan clearly states the group that will receive the contribution and states how the contribution will be allocated among the members of that group.
The Solution Innovation award is presented to clients who have demonstrated an outstanding commitment and contribution to the future direction of ADP services, products and functionality, while the MVP Award is an appreciation award to recognize particularly strong ADP/client relationships.
ADP commissioned Spring Consulting Group, LLC to identify the benefits of ADP's payroll and 401(k) plan services for its clients.
ADP Time and Labor Management Services produce cost savings by automating collection of employee hours and application of company payroll policies.
PwC developed and administered the Web-based surveys to calculate costs for major components of TCO: initial system installation costs, last significant upgrade costs, payroll process labor and non-labor costs (including overhead and facilities costs), ongoing ADP processing fees, system maintenance costs and non-payroll department time collection activities.
ADP Retirement Services has developed business alliances with industry-leading investment providers to offer a variety of defined contribution programs.
The TPASelect program delivers on ADP's strategy of partnering with key members of the retirement services community to provide comprehensive solutions that meet the needs of today's employers," said Kendall Kay, Vice President, Marketing, Strategic Planning and Business Development, ADP Retirement Services.
ADP is one of the largest providers in the HR BPO space, a fact that is gaining recognition," says Rising.
Our goal is to give accountants meaningful tools and resources to help them further their professional development and grow their practice," said Robert Wentling, Vice President, Product Marketing, ADP Small Business Services.
ADP Telecom, the ADP subsidiary that provides secure IT and telephony services for Paris airports, fully understands the needs of professional airport radio users for high reliability and security in radio communication.