ADP


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adenosine

 [ah-den´o-sēn]
1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d-ribose and adenine. It is a structural subunit of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The bond between the phosphate groups in ADP or the two bonds between phosphate groups in ATP are called high-energy bonds, because hydrolysis of a high-energy bond provides a large amount of free energy that can be used to drive other processes that would not otherwise occur. The energy that is derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, or proteins is used to synthesize ATP. The energy stored in ATP is then used directly or indirectly to drive all other cellular processes that require energy, of which there are four major types: (1) the transport of molecules and ions across cell membranes against concentration gradients, which maintains the internal environment of the cell and produces the membrane potential for the conduction of nerve impulses; (2) the contraction of muscle fibers and other fibers producing the motion of cells; (3) the synthesis of chemical compounds; (4) the synthesis of other high-energy compounds.
Adenosine.
2. a preparation of adenosine, which acts as a cardiac depressant of automaticity in the sinus node and conduction in the atrioventricular node and as a vasodilator. It is used as an antiarrhythmic and is also used to cause coronary vasodilation during myocardial perfusion imaging in patients who cannot exercise adequately to perform an exercise stress test, administered intravenously.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate a cyclic nucleotide, adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, involved in the action of many hormones, including catecholamines, ACTH, and vasopressin. The hormone binds to a specific receptor on the cell membrane of target cells. This activates an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which produces cyclic AMP from ATP. Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger activating other enzymes within the cell. Abbreviated 3′,5′-AMP, cAMP, and cyclic AMP.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is then converted back to ATP by the metabolic processes oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
adenosine monophosphate (AMP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Called also adenylic acid.
adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. Examples are the splitting of ATP in muscle contraction and the transport of ions across cell membranes.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. Free energy is supplied to drive metabolic reactions, to transport molecules against concentration gradients (active transport), and to produce mechanical motion (contraction of myofibrils and microtubules), when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate or to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate.

ADP

Abbreviation for adenosine 5'-diphosphate.

ADP

adenosine diphosphate.

ADP

(ā′dē′pē′)
n.
A nucleotide, C10H15N5O10P2, that is composed of adenosine and two linked phosphate groups, and that is converted to ATP for the storage of energy in living cells.

ADP

abbreviation for adenosine diphosphate.

ADP

Abbreviation for:
adenosine diphosphate, see there 
adductor pollicis
advance planning document
after depolarising potential
Animal Disease & Parasite Research Division (of the USDA)
aortic diastolic pressure
approved drug product
assistant director of pathology (Medspeak-UK)
Association for Disabled Professionals
automatic data processing, see there (Medspeak-UK)

ADP

Abbreviation for adenosine 5'-diphosphate.

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate. See ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE.
Fig. 15 ADP. General structure of ADP and ATP. P = phosphate group.click for a larger image
Fig. 15 ADP . General structure of ADP and ATP. P = phosphate group.

ADP (adenosine diphosphate)

a molecule consisting of an ADENOSINE unit on to which are attached two phosphate groups, which are joined by a high-energy bond. ADP can be converted to ATP by the addition of inorganic phosphate and about 34 kJ energy. See Fig. 15 . See ATP for molecular structure.

ADP

adenosine diphosphate

adenosine triphosphate

; ATP; adenosine diphosphate; ADP intracellular biochemicals; ATP releases energy (to fuel intracellular reactions) when hydrolysed by enzymic action into ADP; ADP is later reconverted to ATP by energy-dependent enzymic reactions

ATP

adenosine triphosphate; energy is released within a cell when ATP is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

ADP

1. adenosine diphosphate.
2. automatic data processing.

ADP-ribosylation
the attachment of ADP-ribose to elongation factor 2 that blocks the translocation of the nascent polypeptide. The mode of action of diphtheria toxin.
References in periodicals archive ?
The ACP test is numerically the same as the ADP test but measures the disparity between the matching contributions and after-tax employee contributions for HCEs and NHCEs.
Quotron filed a copyright infringement suit against ADP in September 1991 after discovering that its competitor had illegally obtained and copied Quotron's proprietary software and was using it to demonstrate a new pilot system to Smith Barney and other clients.
In August, ADP announced the acquisition of Mintax, which secures tax credits and economic incentives for corporate clients.
The ADP Shanghai Representative office will eventually include staff and activity for the Dealer and Claims Services Divisions, which already have a strong global presence.
I know that I can always rely on its resources to answer any tax questions I may have," said David Akins, President, Complete Accounting Solutions and an ADP client.
IPaystatements and iReports can also be utilized through the ADP Self Service portal, where employees can conveniently access their paycheck statements and W-2s via the Internet, minimizing printing costs, bank fees and exposure to check fraud.
This award is given to customers that have successfully integrated ADP products and services into their core initiatives and have a proven record of using ADP's services to improve efficiencies, and save resources, money or time.
ADP consistently looks for new ways to improve our service to clients, and this includes looking beyond our existing product solutions," said Susan Olenick, Manager, Training & Performance Systems, ADP Major Accounts Services.
ADP TotalSource provides small and medium-size businesses with traditional and Internet-based outsourcing solutions to reduce the complexities and costs related to employment and human resources.
Our plan sponsors are looking to ADP for solutions that help them address the new regulations and safe harbor provisions," said Kendall Kay, Vice President, Marketing, Strategic Planning and Business Development, ADP Retirement Services.
We're committed to helping our clients make their 401(k) administration process as effective and efficient as possible," said Kendall Kay, Vice President, Marketing, Strategic Planning & Business Development, ADP Retirement Services.
The average TCO per paycheck for ADP clients using an automated ADP TLM system is 28-35 percent less than for ADP clients that do not use an automated TLM system