ADAM1bja19An ADAMs family protein encoded by ADAM19 on chromosome 5q33.3, which is involved in various physiologic and pathological processes, including cell migration, cell adhesion, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, signal transduction, and organogenesis.
Normal activity ADAM19 is involved in proteolytic processing of neuregulins involved in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, suggesting glial cell regulation. ADAM19 cleaves alpha-2 macroglobulin, and may have a role in bone formation. ADAM19 is highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia and ventral horns of the spinal cord, where peripheral neuronal cell lines differentiate. Like ADAM17, but to a lesser degree, ADAM19, can function as a TNF-alpha sheddase, releasing TNF-alpha from a membrane-bound precursor. ADAM19 is also involved in cardiac morphogenesis, giving rise to the membranous septa and valves. Knock-out mice lacking ADAM19 have ventricular septal defects and underdeveloped valves; most die shortly after birth, which may be due to the loss of proteolytic regulation of ErbB ligands by ADAM19.