ABO blood group


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ABO blood group

a system for classifying human blood on the basis of antigenic components of red blood cells and their corresponding antibodies. The ABO blood group is identified by the presence or absence of two different antigens, A and B, on the surface of the red blood cell. The four blood types in this grouping, A, B, AB, and O, are determined by and named for these antigens. Each ABO blood group also contains naturally occurring antibodies to the antigens it lacks. Group A has A antigens on the red cells, with anti-B antibodies in the plasma. Group B has B antigens on the red cells, and anti-A antibodies in the plasma. Group O has neither A nor B antigens, and both anti-A and anti-B in the plasma. AB has both A and B antigens on the red cells, and no anti-A or anti-B in the plasma. In addition to its significant role in transfusion therapy and transplantation, ABO blood grouping contributes to forensic medicine, to genetics, and to anthropology. See also blood group, Rh factor, transfusion. See also blood group, Rh factor, transfusion.

ABO blood group

(blŭd grūp)
The most significant and common blood group.
ABO blood groupclick for a larger image
Fig. 2 ABO blood group . Inheritance of the ABO groupings.
ABO blood groupclick for a larger image
Fig. 1 ABO blood group . Main features of the ABO blood types.

ABO blood group

a classification of blood based on natural variation in human blood types, identified and named by Karl Landsteiner (1868–1943) in 1901. There are four groups: A, B, AB and O, each classified by a particular combination of ANTIGENS on the red blood cells (see also H-SUBSTANCE) and naturally occurring ANTIBODIES in the BLOOD PLASMA. The relative frequency of the four ABO groups in the GENE POOL has been investigated in most human populations, and differs widely between races (see Fig. 1 ).

Antigens and antibodies of the same type cause AGGLUTINATION when mixed, resulting in difficulties in blood transfusion (see UNIVERSAL DONORS and UNIVERSAL RECIPIENTS). Although possessing no A or B antigens, Group O individuals have an H-antigen (see H-SUBSTANCE which is a precursor to the A and B types. H, A and B antigens are found also in human body secretions such as saliva and semen, often a useful fact in forensic tests. See SECRETOR CONDITION.

Inheritance of grouping is controlled by a single autosomal gene (see AUTOSOME on chromosome 9 with three major ALLELES, A, B and O (sometimes written as IA, IB and IO). See Fig. 2 . Four types of the A group are now known, making six multiple alleles (see MULTIPLE ALLELISM) at this LOCUS.

References in periodicals archive ?
ABO blood group types and protection against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
There also was no relationship between ABO blood groups and colonization rates.
Our data suggest that SaV can infect secretors and nonsecretors, those who are Lewis phenotype positive as well as Lewis phenotype negative, and persons of all ABO blood groups.
Thakur and Verma (8) in their study, concluded that ABO blood groups do not show differential susceptibility to malaria.
Findings from studies evaluating the relationship between malaria and ABO blood group are contradictory (15).
Some studies have shown disseminated CM to be associated with HLA antigens (A-9, B-5) and ABO blood group B (6,7,15,16).
Food and Drug Administration has granted the company 510(k) clearance to market its ABORhCard, a qualitative in vitro test that provides a simultaneous determination of an individual's ABO blood group and Rh factor status.
The date of June 14 also marks the birthday of Karl Landsteiner, the Nobel Prize winner who created the ABO blood group system.
This process is designed to enable ECO cells to function like group O universal red blood cells, allowing them to be transfused safely and cost-effectively to patients of any ABO blood group without the risks associated with transfusion of incompatible red cells.
ECO cells are being developed to function like group O "universal" red cells, which would allow them to be safely and cost-effectively transfused to patients of any ABO blood group without the risks associated with transfusion of incompatible red cells.
in molecular genetics of the ABO blood group system from Lund University where he is an Associate Professor at the Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University.
He has been a pioneer in the field of cloning the genes for glycosyltransferases that synthesize the human ABO blood group antigens and many other related enzymes important for the synthesis of carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins.