# degrees of freedom

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## de·grees of free·dom (d.f.),

in statistics, the number of independent comparisons that can be made between the members of a sample (for example, subjects, test items and scores, trials, conditions); in a contingency table it is one less than the number of row categories multiplied by one less than the number of column categories.

## degrees of freedom (df)

a statistical measure of the number of independent observations or choices among members in a sample. It is used in determining the statistical significance of findings during data analysis.

## de·grees of free·dom

(dĕ-grēz' frē'dŏm)**1.**The number of planes (e.g., one, two, or three) within which a joint can move.

**2.**The variety of possible movement combinations that can occur within a segment of the human body.

## degrees of freedom (df)

the number of unrestricted variables in a frequency distribution, a factor that is of great importance in statistical testing. For example, in a simple CHI-SQUARED TEST the number of degrees of freedom is one less than the number of classes (types) of individuals, one d.f. having been lost due to the assumption that a certain proportion of each class is expected. Thus in testing a 9:3:3:1 ratio there are three degrees of freedom.## de·grees of free·dom

(dĕ-grēz' frē'dŏm)In statistics, number of independent comparisons that can be made between the members of a sample.

## degrees of freedom (df),

*n.pl*a statistic, based on the number of observations and groups in a study, that is necessary to determine statistical significance. One looks up the degrees of freedom and the significance level in a table of significance values to determine if the magnitude of the value obtained is significant. Used with the t-test, chi square, analysis of variance, and correlation.

## degrees of freedom

used to define statistical distributions of several tests, usually based on the number of data items less the number of parameters estimated.

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