phenytoin(redirected from 5,5-diphenylhydantoin)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.
An anticonvulsant used in the treatment of generalized tonic clonic and complex partial epilepsy.
Synonym(s): 5, 5-diphenylhydantoin
phenytoin/phen·y·to·in/ (fen´ĭ-toin″) an anticonvulsant used in the control of various kinds of epilepsy and of seizures associated with neurosurgery.
An anticonvulsant drug, C15H12N2O2, used to treat epilepsy, often in the form of its sodium salt. Also called diphenylhydantoin.
a drug that alters cells, membrane conductances of Na+ and Ca2+, ions whose conductances are important during the function of excitable nerve, heart, and muscle tissues.
indications It is prescribed as an anticonvulsant for the treatment and prevention of tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, and seizures resulting from head trauma or surgery. It has an unlabeled use as an antiarrhythmic agent, particularly in digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Establishing and maintaining the desired plasma concentration can be difficult because phenytoin has a high but variable amount of protein binding (typically 80%) and undergoes capacity-limited metabolism (Michaelis-Menten kinetics), with a half-life ranging from approximately 7 to 42 hrs.
contraindications Known hypersensitivity to this drug or to other hydantoins prohibits its use. It is used with caution in patients with a history of hepatic or hematologic abnormalities and in the presence of certain arrhythmias. Phenytoin has been shown to cause fetal malformations, but the benefit to risk ratio can often justify continued use during pregnancy.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse effects are ataxia, nystagmus, hypersensitivity reactions, and gingival hyperplasia. Rarely, a variety of severe reactions occurs. This drug interacts with many other drugs.
A therapeutic drug which some fringe practitioners believe may be used to reverse age-associated mental impairment. Other uses of diphenylhydantoin have included improving concentration, which is attributed to the agent’s ability to stabilise electrical activity of neurons, and strengthening long-term memory.
phenytoinDilantin® Pharmacology An antiepileptic and anticonvulsant widely used as a monotherapy for partial seizures–eg, 2º generalized seizures. See Imipramine, Seizures, Therapeutic drug monitoring.
phenytoinAn ANTICONVULSANT drug widely used as a long-term suppressant of major EPILEPSY. The drug is on the WHO official list. A brand name is Epanutin.
Anti-convulsive medication used to treat seizure disorders.
Mentioned in: Thyroid Function Tests
phenytoinanticonvulsant drug; used to control epilepsy; also used for neuropathic pain
Anticonvulsant used to treat generalized tonic clonic and complex partial epilepsy.
an anticonvulsant used as the sodium salt. Occasionally used in the treatment of tonic-clonic and psychomotor seizures; also used for the control of cardiac arrhythmias, especially those caused by digitalis intoxication. Formerly called diphenylhydantoin.