ATP, [alpha]-ketoglutarate (a-KG; also called 2-oxoglutarate
, 2-OG), and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)] that are co-substrates required for numerous transcriptional and epigenetic processes (e.
Through the GABA shunt, GABA transaminase enzyme catalyzes the conversion of GABA and 2-oxoglutarate
into succinic semialdehyde and glutamate, respectively.
Although DNA methylation mechanisms were described for several decades ago, the enzymes responsible for DNA demethylation were only discovered a few years ago: TET enzymes catalyse the conversion of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) through a reaction requiring oxygen and 2-oxoglutarate
Serum metabolomics reveals many novel metabolic markers of heart failure, including pseudouridine and 2-oxoglutarate
They concluded that cyanobacteria lacked the ability to make one enzyme, called 2-oxoglutarate
dehydrogenase, and that this missing enzyme rendered the bacteria unable to produce a compound -- called succinyl-coenzyme A -- for the next step in the TCA cycle.
The ammonium released is then used by glutamate dehydrogenase to convert 2-oxoglutarate
to L-glutamate, with the concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD+, allowing the reaction to be monitored by following the decrease in absorbance at 340 nm (6).
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase are known also to catalyze an uncoupled decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate
in the absence of the peptide substrate.
In animal systems a different transaminase exists that utilizes 2-oxoglutarate
instead of pyruvate (Kim and Churchich, 1989).
Urine obtained from rats with blood stasis contained higher level of taurine and lower levels of N-acetyl glycoprotein, succinate, 2-oxoglutarate
, citrate, dimethylamine, glycine, sarcosine, phenylacetylglycine and hippurate.
Iron, together with 2-oxoglutarate
and oxygen, is an essential cofactor for the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of proteins that hydroxylate 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and further oxidize to 5-carboxylcytosine and 5-formylcytosine, which have all been suggested to be precursors for both active and passive DNA demethylation (Bhutani et al.
Structural studies on 2-oxoglutarate
oxygenases and related double-stranded beta-helix fold proteins.
The role of iron and 2-oxoglutarate
oxygenases in signalling.